1. Cell！The basic electro-chemical
unit to generate or store electrical
2. Primary Battery！A battery which
is not intended to be recharged and is discharged when
the battery has delivered all of its electrical energy.
3. Secondary Battery！A galvanic battery
which, after discharge, may be restored to the fully
charged state by the passage of an electrical current
through the cell in the opposite direction to that of
4. Open-Circuit Voltage！The difference
in potential between the terminals of a cell when the
circuit is open (no load condition)
5. Working Voltage！The typical voltage
or range of voltage of a battery during discharge (also
called operating voltage or running voltage).
6. Nominal Voltage！The characteristic
operating voltage or rated voltage of a battery.
7. Cut Off Voltage！The battery voltage
at which the discharge is terminated. The cut off voltage
is specified by the battery manufacturer and is generally
a function of discharge rate.
8. Capacity Retention！The fraction
of the full capacity available from a battery under
specified conditions of discharge after it has been
stored for a period of time.
9. Capacity！The total number of ampere-hours
that can be withdrawn from a fully charged cell or battery
under specified conditions of discharge.
10. Internal Impedance！The opposition
exhibited by a circuit element (cell or battery) to
the flow of an alternating current (a.c.) of a particular
frequency as a result of resistance, induction and capacitance.
11. Internal Resistance！The opposition
exhibited by a circuit element to the flow of direct
current (dc.). In a cell, the internal resistance is
the sum of the ionic and electronic resistances of the
12. Self Discharge！The loss of useful
capacity of a battery on storage due to internal chemical
action (local action).
13. Discharge Rate！The rate, usually
expressed in several rated capacity at which electrical
current is taken from the battery.
14. Charge Rate！The rate, usually expressed
in several rated capacity at which electrical current
is charged into the battery.
15. Constant Voltage Charge！When charging,
a method to keep constant voltage to charge the battery.
16. Constant Current Charge！When charging,
a method to keep constant current to charge the battery.
17. Trickle Charge！A charge at a low
rate, balancing losses through local action and periodic
discharge, to maintain a battery in a fully charged
18. Memory Effect！A phenomenon in which
a cell or battery operated in successive cycles to the
same, but less than full, depth of discharge temporarily
loses the rest of its capacity at normal voltage levels.
19. Leakage！The inner electrolyte penetrates
to its metal can, which makes its appearance dirty and
pollutes the environment.
20. Battery or Pack！Two or more electro-chemical
cells interconnected in an appropriate series/parallel
arrangement to provide the required operating voltage
and current levels. Under common usage, the term ＾battery￣
is often also applied to a single cell.
21. Current Drain！The current withdrawn
from a battery during discharge.
22. Safety Vent！A venting mechanism
designed into a cell which activates under specific
conditions of abuse to relieve internal pressure.